MoveWindhoek – New bus system makes Namibian capital mobile

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Main actors

City Government, National Government, Supranational / Intergovernmental Institutions

Icons use case study project area

Project area

Metropolitan Area

Icons use case study duration


Ongoing since 2012/07

MoveWindhoek is a new bus system with which poorer population groups are to be provided with better access to mobility and urban motorised individual transport is to be reduced in the long run.

The present bus system in Windhoek is very unreliable since buses operate without fixed intervals and without a fixed route plan. This is why many places in the city lack fixed bus-stops. Furthermore, the obsolescent vehicles and the small fleet provide too little capacity. All in all, non-motorised traffic and public transport have been given insufficient attention. Therefore, heavy traffic jams build up towards the city centre every day. In the long term, owing to population growth and the formation of a middle class, traffic congestion is set to become even more severe. 

To address this problem, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, in cooperation with the Municipal Administration of Windhoek and the Namibian Ministry of Works and Transport,  has developed a master plan for sustainable urban transport that is to boost the sustainability of both the traffic flows within the city and those heading for the neighbouring cities of Okahandja and Rehoboth and to the airport, around 40 kilometres away. 

Originally published by the International Community of Practice for Sustainable Urban Development CONNECTIVE CITIES:

Sustainable Development Goals

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
Reduce inequality within and among countries
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
Windhoek, Namibia

Size and population development
343,320 inhabitants in 2011. Their number is set to double to 759,019 in 20 years mainly due to the rapid population growth (+10% each year) in the informal settlements in the city..

Main functions
administrative, commercial, and industrial center of Namibia; every major national enterprise has its headquarters in Windhoek

Sources for city budget
The City of Windhoek had a N$4,1 billion budget for the 2014/15 financial year (about USD 300,000)

Political structure
Windhoek is a self-governed settlement which is governed by a multi-party municipal council that has currently fifteen seats.

The Namibian capital of Windhoek has recorded an annual population growth of 3-4 per cent. The number of inhabitants is set to double from 343,320 in 2011 to 759,019 within 20 years. The greatest population growth is going to take place in the informal settlements in the north of the city. However, the poorer sections of the population living in the north in particular have only very poor access to mobility because so far, the urban transport system has been operating very insufficiently and inefficiently.

At the moment, people depend on taxis and minibuses, since there are only  very limited number of urban buses. Buses are therefore often overcrowded. Taxis dominate the market for public transport in Windhoek. With the existing bus lines only operating during peak periods, the city lacks an all-day bus service. Neither are there any fixed routes or facilities to change buses. The present fleet consists of very old vehicles. At the moment, the poorer sections of the population spend up to 25% of their income on transport. Others are forced to walk long distances to work or to school and thus have to accept a considerable security risk.

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, in cooperation with the Municipal Administration of Windhoek and the Namibian Ministry of Works and Transport launched the master plan for sustainable urban transport in order to facilitate the provision of sustainable, user-friendly, attractive and efficient public transport that can meet the requirements of a burgeoning population in Windhoek. As described by MoveWindhoeck, the objectives of the project are to:

  • Produce a clear and realistic vision for the development of a sustainable urban transport system for the next 20 years.
  • Generate strategies and policies to help make that vision a reality.
  • Maximise the efficiency and safety of the existing public and non-motorised transport system.
  • Recognise the role that public and non-motorised transport system shall have in contributing to different needs of user groups, in particular the urban poor.
  • Help transportation system to contribute to environmental and climate change related issues.
  • Serve as a basis for a national public transport master plan for Namibia.
  • Serve as an example for regional and local public transport master plans in Namibia to follow.

The development of a a Sustainable Urban Transport Master Plan began in 2012. Following an important number of stakeholder meetings, the plan was approved by Cabinet in 2014. The Ministry of Works and Transport has put a Sustainable Urban Transport Committee in charge of superviewing the implementation of the Sustainable Urban Transport Master Plan.

With the MoveWindhoek project, new bus routes have been launched, while the existing ones have been modified, enabling the development of a coherent network. The network is to consist of clear hierarchies and integrate fixed options to change buses. In addition to standard routes, express routes are to be introduced.

The new buses will then operate according to schedule and offer the population more reliability. Buses will no longer operate solely during peak periods but will provide a reliable mobility service throughout the day. No longer will they only reach the better-situated residential areas and the commercial and industrial areas in the east and the south of the city, but they are also going to stop at other fixed points along their route. These stops are gradually being enhanced and made more comfortable.

The bus fleet is also to be renewed and extended, a measure that was already started in late 2015 with a German Government financial contribution to the tune of 3 million euro, for which 13 new urban transport buses were acquired. 

Non-motorized transport is also part of the master plan. Since 2011 GIZ is raising awareness about cycling and supports events like the "cycle to work day." Moreover, capacity building measures are foreseen by the plan. Employees of the City of Windhoek as well as employees of the Ministry of Works and Transport are trained on traffic planning, non-motorized Transport, policy regulation as well as bus operations to gain autonomy in the execution of their responsibilities. 

In future, the poorer population will have a more reliable transport service and can be mobile, taking advantage of fixed timetables and bus-stops in the city. This therefore provides those sections of the population that cannot afford individual private transport a particular opportunity to be mobile on fixed routes and at fixed times. The transport conditions are improved not only through a reliable route and fixed-interval system but also through new and more comfortable buses. Thanks to the introduction of a new bus system, an average household can save around 700 Namibia dollars (about 70 euro) a month. School pupils and students benefit most from this. 

MoveWindhoek is now steadily improving the bus system in Windhoek, and it needs to make every effort to advertise this. The population have to be aware that fixed schedules and fixed bus-stops have immediately created more reliability in Windhoek’s public urban passenger transport, which can bear considerable cost benefits as well. With this in mind, the MoveWindhoek Team are also running campaigns in the city with information stands and an information bus explaining inhabitants how the new bus system works. In this manner, they are to be motivated to switch to the bus, and a change of attitude is to be brought about among the population.

MoveWindhoek serves as a model for the implementation of a similar project in the northern regions of Namibia where the learnings from MoveWindhoek are being transfered for the development of a transportation strategy for the regions of Ohangwena, Omusati, Oshana and Oshikoto (

- New bus system makes Namibian Capital mobile, (accessed 30 April 2016)

- Review of the German Engagement in Public Transport in Namibia, (accessed 30 April 2016)

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Connective Cities
Bonn, Germany

Connective Cities

Institution | International Community of Practice for Sustainable Urban Develop­ment

Gregor Schmorl
Windhoek, Namibia

Gregor Schmorl

Individual | Technical Advisor

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