Youth election project U18

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Main actors

City Government, National Government, NGO / Philanthropy

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Project area

Whole City/Administrative Region

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Ongoing since 1996

The U18 initiative is a simulated vote that takes place nine days ahead of real ‘adult’ elections, either local or national. The project is designed to generate an interest in politics amongst young people and supplement their political education.

Understanding politics can be daunting for young people. U18 helps to make it fun and accessible. Throughout the year, participants study manifestos, form parties and debate with politicians, culminating in a mock election which takes place a week ahead of the real elections. Any organisation dealing with young people, from schools to youth centres, can register as a ‘polling station’, and benefit from online teaching resources. With a current lack of political education taking place in schools, the scheme helped reach 198,365 young people from diverse backgrounds at the 2013 parliamentary election, and is ever growing both in size and reputation.

Originally published by EUROCITIES, the network of 130 European cities - PDF: 

Sustainable Development Goals

Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels

Eurocities Awards

This project was awarded the 'Eurocities Awards' in 2012 in the following category: Participation.

Berlin, Germany

Size and population development
In 2019, the municipality of Berlin had a population of 3,669,491 inhabitants, making it the most populous city in the European Union (EU). The larger metropolitan area has about 5 million inhabitants.

Population composition
According to estimations, about one third of Berlin’s population was foreign born or has a migratory background. These inhabitants originate from other parts of the EU—such as Poland, Italy or Bulgaria—as well as from countries outside of the EU, such as Syria, Vietnam or the United States of America. The largest non-native population comes from Turkey: In 2019, more than 107,000 Turkish nationals were registered as inhabitants of Berlin.

Main functions
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany. As a city-state it is also one of the country’s 16 Länder, as the federal states are called in Germany. Situated approximately 112 miles (180 km) south of the Baltic Sea, the city lies in the wide glacial valley of the Spree River, which runs through Berlin’s centre. The city extends over an area of 891.7 square kilometres and stands at an average altitude of 34 meters above sea level. After the reunification of Germany and East and West Berlin in 1990, the unified Berlin was re-established as the country’s capital (replacing Bonn, the former capital of West Germany). In 1999, large parts of the Federal Government and the German Bundestag finally moved back to Berlin. Berlin is a city of great historical significance, which becomes evident considering the amount of historical landmarks that visualize the city’s history. Some of the most important landmarks include the Brandenburg Gate (built in 1793), the Reichstag Building (which dates to 1884), remnants of the Berlin Wall (taken down on the 9th of November 1989) or the Holocaust memorial (inaugurated in 2003). Berlin is also a famous cultural hub, known for its world-class museums, theatres, operas and concert halls as well as its vibrant club scene and street art. Finally, the Brain City Berlin is a leading location for science and research. It is home to a number of prestigious universities such as the Freie Universität Berlin, the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin and the Technische Universität Berlin, with more than 35,000 students each as well as renowned research institutions and think tanks.

Main industries / business
As the fourth largest economy of the world, Germany has a wide array of prestigious industries. Berlin is home to a diverse mix of economic activities: state-owned enterprises, creative industries, automotive manufacturers, (digital) media corporations, high-tech and telecommunication companies as well as multiple digital pioneers that flourish in the city’s vibrant start-up scene. Tourism is constantly growing and brings about 14 million visitors (2019) to the city every year.

Sources for city budget
Berlin draws its budget for public expenditure largely from taxes, federal transfers, fees, fines and operating revenues. It is spent not only to provide high quality public services, but also to boost the city’s private sector, civil society engagement and cultural life.

Political structure
The city-state Berlin is governed by the Berlin Senate, which is comprised of 10 senators, and the Governing Mayor. As the capital of Germany, Berlin hosts the Bundesregierung (federal government), the Bundestag (federal parliament) and the Bundesrat (the parliamentary chamber of the 16 Länder). Each of the 16 Länder has a representation in Berlin. On many political issues, the Länder have co-legislative powers vis-à-vis the Federal government. Moreover, Berlin hosts embassies from more than 120 countries from around the world.

Administrative structure
Berlin is administrated by the Senate and its 12 districts or boroughs (Bezirke). The Senate is the city’s central administration, in charge of city planning, public policy, and the regulation of public and private spheres. The district administrations have some decentralized public functions, with reasonable differences between the various localities.

U18 began in 1996 at a Berlin youth club in the district of Berlin-Mitte, but now takes place in various locations around the city and across the country. Schools, youth clubs and other organisations connected with young people, such as libraries, can register with the U18 website as a polling station. Mobile polling stations are placed on streets and squares to ensure the project reaches a wide range of young people. As an element of competition, each polling station then designs its own ballot box or booth used at the U18-election, with the best winning a prize after voting has taken place.

The project provides young people from all nationalities and backgrounds with an accessible channel into politics, given that political education in schools is not always sufficient to get them really interested in politics.

The organisations registered as polling stations and other individuals can access a range of teaching materials available on the U18 website, which are used as a basis for the preparation in the year running up to the election. Throughout this year, young people take part in a range of activities. These include studying manifestos, forming parties, carrying out voluntary and charitable activities and debating with politicians.

Many politicians back the project by meeting young people, coordinating tours of the House of Representatives or acting as patrons of the initiative. The project is also supported by the Senate Department and Berlin’s borough offices, by providing rooms, funding and educational materials. A steering group, comprised of representatives from the numerous youth organisations behind the project, is responsible for overseeing its management.

Then, nine days before the real elections, these activities culminate in an election for children and youngsters, which is conducted just like a real ballot vote – the parties and candidates are the same. The registered organisations download ballots from the U18 website and provide a voting booth which, like the real ones, closes at 18:00. Once closed, voters can follow the results projections online and a twohour election broadcast is also put together by the young people.

The project is mainly financed by the department for education of the Berlin Senate and a number of other organisations. Some boroughs also allocated funding from their own budgets, as well as resources such as staff and rooms. 

Since the first polling booth opened in 1996, participation has continued to increase steadily. In 2001, 5,000 young people voted in the U18 elections ahead of the Berlin House of Representatives elections and by 2016 that number had risen to 25,504. A survey carried out to gauge the impact of the project revealed that U18 voters are very interested in political issues and that their decisions are usually based on facts and made more confidently than those without the preliminary education provided by the project. Interestingly, the results recorded from the Berlin House of Representatives U18 elections in 2011 differed somewhat from the real results, with the young people favouring the green party overall, which was placed third in the real elections, where the young people’s second choice, the social democratic party gained the most votes.

During the preparation phase of an election, the participating organisations cooperate to provide young people with knowledge about politics. The pooling stations and coordination centres organise activities through which young people can develop their own opinion about political parties and be critical about the propositions made by politicians. 

The commitment of young people happens at several levels during an election. In the run-up to an election, the staff at the polling stations are sought out by the young people to organise discussions and debates. Nine days before the real election, young peopole can choose a voting place, tick off their first and second votes, and then cast the ballot into a ballot box. Afterwards, they are also responsible for the counting of the ballots. A live election coverage organised at the parliamentary elections in 2009 and 2013, as well as at the election for the parliament of Berlin in 2011 gave young people the opportunity to ask questions to politicians and to learn media skills. Afterwards, pedagogical institutions are responsible for ensuring the follow-up and benefit from didactic support available on the U18 website.

Cities in action - U18 youth election project, Getting young people into politics - EUROCITIES, July 2013

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Brussels Capital Region, Belgium

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